Abbot. K. (1999-2013),
states that “Russian scientist Ivan Pavlov developed the theory of classical
conditioning while studying the salivation of dogs. Pavlov realized that dogs
would salivate when food was placed in their mouths”.
observation, Pavlov discovered that the sound of the door opening and the sight
of staff carrying food bowls also caused the dogs to salivate. The food is the
unconditioned stimuli and the sounds of the door as well as the sight of food
are the neutral stimuli.
Every time math problem
sets are ordered so that the next problem is only slightly more complex than
the previous one, the insights of this tradition are used. But the empiricists
saw the child as relatively passive, and thus the brunt of learning fell on the
teacher to rigorously prepare step-by-step materials.
Their notion of
learning as the gradual build-up of knowledge largely ignored qualitative
developmental shifts in thinking. Much of the bad reputation of this method
comes from the fact that its teacher-centered view was corrupted by the
so-called factory school, the scale of which undermined Locke’s cardinal
principle of constantly observing child-teacher interactions, and instead
encouraged one-way rote learning.
A student may have a
scheme for dogs. Then the student is introduced to a Husky. The
student can assimilate this new information into the “dog” scheme. The same
student who has a preexisting scheme for dogs is now introduced to a cat.
The student understands that the cat doesn’t quite fit into the “dog” scheme;
therefore, the child creates a new category to fit the cat. The new
category may be named “furry pets that aren’t dogs.”
In the previous
example, the student understood that the cat doesn’t quite fit into the “dog”
scheme. At this point, the student hasn’t figured out what to do with the new
scheme yet. This is called
disequilibration. When the student
creates a new category to fit the cat, the mental state falls back into equilibrium.